[ti:America’s Strongest Digital Privacy Law Takes Effect in California][by:shang05.com][00:00.00]更多听力请访问shang05.com[00:00.04]America's strongest digital privacy law has taken effect in California.[00:08.08]The law, known as the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA),[00:14.92]requires businesses to inform consumers about the ways[00:20.16]in which they collect and share personal information.[00:25.60]The law gives consumers the right to request that companies not sell or share their data.[00:33.64]It also requires businesses to destroy information already collected[00:40.32]if the consumer asks to have it removed.[00:45.08]The law covers the sale of data related to almost any sharing of information that can help a business.[00:54.20]This includes information-sharing between companies as well as the selling of data by third-party businesses.[01:05.00]Large online businesses, such as Facebook and Google, are affected by the law.[01:11.48]So are major retail companies.[01:16.40]Walmart and Home Depot, among others, say they have added "Do Not Sell My Info" links[01:24.32]to their websites to make it easier for consumers to exercise their rights.[01:31.12]The businesses said they have also put the information on signs inside their stores.[01:40.28]Digital experts say it remains unclear how the CCPA will affect the kind of targeted advertising[01:49.20]commonly used by companies like Facebook and Google.[01:55.12]Facebook collects large amounts of personal data[01:58.92]and uses the information to direct ads at different groups of people.[02:04.68]The data could include someone's sex, race or religion.[02:11.36]Facebook says it does not share that kind of personal information with advertisers.[02:19.24]The experts say that, because the law covers any company that meets conditions for interacting[02:26.56]with state residents, the California law might end up serving as a legal model for other states.[02:35.52]"If we do this right in California," said California attorney general Xavier Becerra,[02:42.52]the state will "put the capital ‘P' back into privacy for all Americans."[02:50.24]California's legislation is the nation's biggest effort yet[02:54.84]aimed at fighting against so-called "surveillance capitalism."[03:00.00]This term describes the business of profiting from data that most Americans give up[03:07.16]- often unknowingly – in exchange for free and often ad-supported services.[03:15.44]In a statement about the CCPA in October, Becerra said[03:20.32]that personal data is what is powering today's wealthy digital economy.[03:27.48]"It's time we had control over the use of our personal data.[03:32.20]That includes keeping it private," he said.[03:36.64]Becerra added that he sees the law as "a historic step forward"[03:42.76]in putting the people of California "first in the age of the internet."[03:49.60]Some experts have noted that some parts of the law will likely bring legal challenges.[03:56.72]One such challenge could center on constitutional concerns[04:01.72]related to the many different areas covered by the law.[04:06.28]The experts say the law's many exceptions could also be problematic,[04:12.40]as well as the fact that it only affects information collected by businesses -- not the government.[04:21.28]Critics say the law's exceptions permit companies to keep holding personal information[04:27.56]on consumers in some situations, even after individuals request that the data be destroyed.[04:35.88]For example, a company can keep personal data if it decides it needs it to finish the sales process.[04:45.68]A company could also continue to hold information[04:49.60]in a way that the consumer would "reasonably expect" them to.[04:55.72]Joseph Jerome is a policy director at the privacy group Common Sense Media/Kids Action.[05:03.84]He told The Associated Press that the law is "more of a ‘right to request and hope for deletion.'"[05:12.84]The law offers stronger protections for children.[05:16.64]For example, it bans the sale of data on children under 16 without permission.[05:25.12]Digital experts also noted that the law leaves it up[05:29.28]to California citizens themselves to exercise their new rights.[05:35.56]To make the law effective, consumers will need to take direct action[05:40.48]to "opt out" of data sales or request collected information.[05:47.20]Margot Kaminski is a professor of law at the University of Colorado[05:52.96]who studies legal technology issues.[05:56.40]She told the AP that many people currently do not take the time[06:01.44]to read existing privacy agreements because they are long and complex.[06:07.68]Kaminski said, "If you aren't even reading privacy agreements that you are signing,[06:13.84]are you really going to request your data?"[06:17.04]I'm Bryan Lynn.[06:19.72]更多听力请访问shang05.com