[ti:The World Trade Organization Loses Dispute Settlement Body][by:shang05.com][00:00.00]更多听力请访问shang05.com[00:00.04]A group that decides on trade dispute appeals at the World Trade Organization (WTO) ‘[00:06.28]will not be able to do work after Tuesday.[00:11.04]The terms of two judges on the WTO's Appellate Body end on December tenth.[00:19.32]That leaves only one judge in the group – not enough to make decisions under WTO rules.[00:29.48]Among the disputes still undecided are seven cases that were brought against the United States last year.[00:38.76]They involve U.S. President Donald Trump's move to place import taxes[00:45.56]on foreign steel and aluminum because they represent a threat to U.S. national security.[00:54.68]The WTO's Dispute Settlement Body creates a panel that can help decide a trade case.[01:03.40]However, if decisions are appealed, they must go to the Appellate Body for a final decision.[01:11.40]Supporters of the WTO now say that nations can use tariffs and sanctions[01:18.52]to limit imports, increasing protectionism and hurting trade.[01:24.64]"We are in a crisis moment for our global trading system,''[01:29.16]said U.S. Representative Stephanie Murphy, a Democrat from Florida.[01:35.84]"As of tomorrow, the court will cease to exist.''[01:41.40]The loss of a global trade court of final appeals, Murphy said,[01:46.40]is "really dangerous for American businesses.''[01:51.56]The appeals court should have seven judges.[01:55.52]But their numbers have slowly decreased.[02:00.08]That is because the United States - under Presidents George W. Bush,[02:05.20]Barack Obama and Donald Trump - has stopped new judges[02:10.72]from being appointed to the court to protest the way the WTO operates.[02:19.00]Trump and his top trade negotiator, Robert Lighthizer, are critics of the WTO.[02:27.40]They argue that the trade organization holds back America's ability[02:32.96]to answer unfair trading methods used by China and other countries.[02:40.48]Many countries have criticized the WTO's system for settling trade disagreements.[02:48.52]Critics say judges take too long to make a decision,[02:53.24]and that they often overreach in their rulings.[02:57.36]They also say the organization is not able to deal with[03:02.00]the challenge of China's mix of market capitalism and state control.[03:09.72]Getting the WTO to reform is difficult because it requires agreement from its 164 member countries.[03:19.96]The departure of the judges was met with uncertainty or anger by several WTO countries.[03:29.24]Zhang Xiangchen is China's ambassador to the WTO.[03:35.08]He said in a statement that he was observing the event[03:39.32]by wearing the black tie his wife had given him for funerals[03:45.32]In a statement released Tuesday, Phil Hogan, said[03:49.64]"this is a regrettable and very serious blow to the international...trade system."[03:57.08]He is the European Union commissioner for trade.[04:02.16]The EU and several countries have been working to set up an unofficial appellate body.[04:10.32]It might make decisions about future trade disagreements using former judges.[04:17.52]However, it would not be permanent and it is uncertain how many countries might agree to such a group.[04:26.88]The WTO was set up in 1995 to improve international trade and settle trade disputes.[04:37.68]But the process has proved difficult.[04:41.64]The appellate panel is well-known for missing deadlines, a problem that worsened as it lost judges.[04:50.68]It is supposed to rule within 90 days but last year needed about 395 days to make decisions.[05:00.68]Since 1995, it is estimated that 592 cases have been brought to the WTO.[05:11.32]The appellate body has made 120 decisions, covering 162 of those cases.[05:20.40]Most of the rest of the cases were dropped or decided outside the WTO process.[05:29.20]I'm Jonathan Evans. 更多听力请访问shang05.com