[ti:Alaska's Glaciers Shrinking at Record Rate][by:shang05.com][00:00.00]更多听力请访问shang05.com[00:01.36]The year 2019 will soon be the hottest on record for the American state of Alaska.[00:10.12]Its glaciers are melting at record or near-record levels, pouring waters into rising seas, scientists say.[00:20.68]The Reuters news agency spoke with the scientists after they made measurements around Alaska this autumn.[00:29.96]Record levels of ice and snow are disappearing from the Lemon Creek Glacier in Juneau, the state capital.[00:39.64]The Lemon Creek Glacier had its second year of record mass loss, with three meters gone from the surface.[00:49.08]That information comes from Louis Sass, a glaciologist with the United States Geological Survey, or USGS.[01:00.32]Juneau's glacial records date back to the 1940s.[01:05.92]Melt went all the way up to the top, said Sass.[01:10.28]"That's a really bad sign for a glacier," he said, noting that melting ice very high up[01:18.24]means there is no buildup of snow to make new ice and help balance ice loss in lower areas.[01:29.00]At Wolverine Glacier i n the Kenai Peninsula, south of the city of Anchorage,[01:34.92]loss was the second highest in a record that goes back to the 1960s.[01:42.04]Sass said it failed to reach the record set in 2004 – but only because so much of the glacier had already melted.[01:52.48]"The lower part's completely gone now," he noted.[01:57.44]Extreme melting was also reported at Kenai Fjords National Park,[02:03.24]which former President Barack Obama once visited to call attention to climate change.[02:11.12]There, Bear Glacier had shrunk by close to a kilometer in just 11 months,[02:17.80]the National Park Service noted, based on August measurements.[02:24.28]Bear Glacier is a popular stop for vacationers.[02:30.28]"It's almost like you popped it and it started to deflate," said Nate Lewis.[02:36.28]He is a wilderness guide who takes travelers out on the new lake[02:41.48]that has formed at the bottom of the shrinking glacier.[02:46.40]Even one of the few Alaska glaciers that had been expanding, Taku, is now quickly losing ice.[02:56.40]Taku is southeast of Juneau.[02:59.56]Especially worrisome is the high altitude at which Taku is melting,[03:06.48]said Mauri Pelto, who heads the North Cascades Glacier Climate Project.[03:13.80]In 2019, the summer melt reached as high as 1,450 meters,[03:22.04]25 meters above the earlier high-altitude record set just last year, he said.[03:30.76]Now that it is shrinking, Taku is expected to start losing big ice pieces,[03:37.56]increasing Alaska's effect on rising sea levels,[03:41.88]says a report by the U.S. Geological Survey's Chris McNeil.[03:48.32]Louis Sass, Shad O'Neel and other glaciologists with the USGS helped McNeil write the report.[03:57.96]The findings are to be presented at a meeting of the American Geophysics Union later this month in San Francisco.[04:08.16]Alaska recorded its warmest month ever in July and the warmer weather has continued.[04:16.56]Brian Brettschneider is a climatologist with the University of Alaska Fairbanks' International Arctic Research Center.[04:27.20]Recently on Twitter, he wrote that Alaska will break the record[04:32.12]for the warmest year unless December gets colder than expected.[04:38.84]Alaska's glaciers make up far less than one percent of the world's land ice.[04:45.72]But their melt makes up about seven percent of the water that is raising the world's sea levels.[04:56.04]That information is from a 2018 study published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.[05:05.36]There are also local effects.[05:08.52]Scientists say glacial melt affects not only waters where salmon reproduce, but the natural habitats of other creatures.[05:19.36]It is creating new lakes in places where ice used to be[05:23.92]and outburst floods from those lakes are happening more often, scientists say.[05:32.28]An outburst flood is a sudden release of water from a dam created by glacial melt.[05:40.68]These floods result when part of the dam fails.[05:46.08]Changes in the glaciers and the ecosystems they feed[05:50.40]has happened so fast that they are hard to follow, said O'Neel of USGS.[05:57.52]I'm Alice Bryant. 更多听力请访问shang05.com