美国最严格的数字隐私法在加州生效

    America's strongest digital privacy law has taken effect in California.
    美国最严格的数字隐私法已经在加州生效。

    The law, known as the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), requires businesses to inform consumers about the ways in which they collect and share personal information.
    这部法律被称为《加州消费者隐私法》,它要求企业把自己收集和共享个人信息的方式告知给消费者。

    The law gives consumers the right to request that companies not sell or share their data. It also requires businesses to destroy information already collected if the consumer asks to have it removed.
    这部法律赋予了消费者要求企业不出售或共享其数据的权利。它还要求企业在消费者提出要求的情况下,删除已经收集到的信息。

    The law covers the sale of data related to almost any sharing of information that can help a business. This includes information-sharing between companies as well as the selling of data by third-party businesses.
    这部法律涵盖了几乎任何可以帮助企业的共享信息的数据销售。其中包括企业间的信息共享以及第三方企业的数据销售。

    Large online businesses, such as Facebook and Google, are affected by the law. So are major retail companies.
    脸书网和谷歌网等大型网络公司都受到着这部法律的影响。大型零售企业也是如此。

    Walmart and Home Depot, among others, say they have added "Do Not Sell My Info" links to their websites to make it easier for consumers to exercise their rights. The businesses said they have also put the information on signs inside their stores.
    沃尔玛和家得宝等企业表示,他们已经在网站上添加了“不允许销售我的信息”的链接,让消费者行使权利更为方便。这些企业表示,他们还将这些告知信息放到了店内的标牌上。

    Digital experts say it remains unclear how the CCPA will affect the kind of targeted advertising commonly used by companies like Facebook and Google.
    数字专家表示,目前尚不清楚《加州消费者隐私法》将会对脸书网和谷歌网等公司采用的定向广告产生什么影响。

    Facebook collects large amounts of personal data and uses the information to direct ads at different groups of people. The data could include someone's sex, race or religion. Facebook says it does not share that kind of personal information with advertisers.
    脸书网收集了大量个人数据,并利用这些信息将广告定向到不同人群。这些数据可能包括用户性别、种族或宗教信仰。脸书网称其没有跟广告商共享这种个人信息。

    The experts say that, because the law covers any company that meets conditions for interacting with state residents, the California law might end up serving as a legal model for other states.
    专家们表示,因为该法律涵盖了与本州居民打交道的任何公司,所以这部加州的法律最终可能会成为其它州的法律典范。

    "If we do this right in California," said California attorney general Xavier Becerra, the state will "put the capital ‘P' back into privacy for all Americans."
    加州总检察长贝塞拉表示,如果我们在加州做到了这点,国家将会把隐私权还给所有美国人。

    California's legislation is the nation's biggest effort yet aimed at fighting against so-called "surveillance capitalism." This term describes the business of profiting from data that most Americans give up - often unknowingly – in exchange for free and often ad-supported services.
    加州的立法是美国迄今为止旨在打击所谓“监视资本主义”的最大努力。这个术语描述了从大多数美国人通常不知不觉中放弃数据换取免费或由广告支持的服务中获利的企业。

    In a statement about the CCPA in October, Becerra said that personal data is what is powering today's wealthy digital economy. "It's time we had control over the use of our personal data. That includes keeping it private," he said. Becerra added that he sees the law as "a historic step forward" in putting the people of California "first in the age of the internet."
    贝塞拉10月份在一份关于《加州消费者隐私法》的声明中表示,个人数据是推动当今丰富的数字经济发展的动力。他说:“现在是时候控制个人数据的使用了。这包括维持个人数据的私密。”贝塞拉还说,他认为该法律是一项历史性的进步,它将加州人民“置于互联网时代的首位。”

    Some experts have noted that some parts of the law will likely bring legal challenges. One such challenge could center on constitutional concerns related to the many different areas covered by the law. The experts say the law's many exceptions could also be problematic, as well as the fact that it only affects information collected by businesses -- not the government.
    一些专家指出,这部法律的部分条款可能会引发司法挑战。其中一项挑战可能集中于对这部法律覆盖的众多不同领域的宪法担忧。专家表示,这部法律的很多特例也可能存在问题,另外事实是它仅影响企业所收集的信息,并不包括政府在内。

    Critics say the law's exceptions permit companies to keep holding personal information on consumers in some situations, even after individuals request that the data be destroyed. For example, a company can keep personal data if it decides it needs it to finish the sales process. A company could also continue to hold information in a way that the consumer would "reasonably expect" them to.
    批评人士表示,这部法律中的特例允许企业在某些情况下保留有关消费者的个人信息,即便是在个人要求销毁数据之后。例如,如果公司称其需要这些数据完成销售过程,就能保留这些个人数据。公司还可以以消费者“合理预期”的方式继续保留这些信息。

    Joseph Jerome is a policy director at the privacy group Common Sense Media/Kids Action. He told The Associated Press that the law is "more of a ‘right to request and hope for deletion.'"
    约瑟夫·杰罗姆是Common Sense Media/Kids Action这家隐私组织的政策主管。他对美联社表示,这部法律更多是“要求删除和希望删除个人数据的权利。”

    The law offers stronger protections for children. For example, it bans the sale of data on children under 16 without permission.
    这部法律为儿童提供了更强大的保护。例如,法律禁止未经允许销售16岁以下儿童的个人数据。

    Digital experts also noted that the law leaves it up to California citizens themselves to exercise their new rights. To make the law effective, consumers will need to take direct action to "opt out" of data sales or request collected information.
    数字专家还指出,该法律只允许加州公民自己行使这项新权利。为了让法律产生预期效果,消费者必须直接采取行动以“退出”数据销售或者收集信息的请求。

    Margot Kaminski is a professor of law at the University of Colorado who studies legal technology issues. She told the AP that many people currently do not take the time to read existing privacy agreements because they are long and complex.
    卡明斯基是科罗拉多大学的法学教授,他主要研究法律技术问题。她对美联社表示,目前许多人不会花时间去看现有的隐私协议,因为它又长又复杂。

    Kaminski said, "If you aren't even reading privacy agreements that you are signing, are you really going to request your data?"
    卡明斯基表示:“如果你甚至都不读自己将要签署的隐私协议,你真会去要求保护你的数据吗?”

    I'm Bryan Lynn.
    我是布莱恩·琳恩。(shang05.com原创翻译,禁止转载,违者必究!)